PediatricsThe field of medicine that deals with the care and treatment of infants and children.ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZSkip List ContentAAbdominal Migraine: Symptoms, Diagnosis & TreatmentAbdominal migraine is a difficult-to-diagnose condition characterized by stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Anger, Irritability and Aggression in KidsAngry feelings often bubble into outbursts for children and teens. Parents may wonder whether their child's behavior is normal; Yale Medicine can help.Atrioventricular Septal DefectA congenital heart defect characterized by holes in the heart where there are normally walls that separate different heart chambers, as well as abnormal heart valves that leak.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)ADHD is a condition marked by problems with attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid TumorsA rare, fast-growing type of cancer that begins in the brain and/or spinal cord.Autism: The Transition to AdulthoodAutism is a developmental disorder that impairs interaction and communication. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Avoiding and Refusing to Go to SchoolFor many reasons, including anxiety, depression, social issues and learning problems, an estimated 10-15% of kids are chronically absent from school.BBicuspid Aortic ValveCondition in which the aortic valve has two leaflets instead of the usual three.Birth DefectsBirth defects are health problems that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe, and some babies have more than one.Blood Transfusions for ChildrenA blood transfusion is any procedure used to replace blood, or any blood component, that has been lost. Learn more about this procedure.CCeliac Disease (in Children)Celiac disease is a digestive disorder in which the small intestine becomes inflamed and damaged by gluten, a protein found in many grains.Child DevelopmentChild development is a series of skills and stages that occur in a child between birth and adulthood.Clinical TrialsNew drugs and medical treatments need to go through a series tests called clinical trials. This is how new and better treatments are made possible.Coarctation of the AortaA congenital anomaly in which part of the aorta is narrowed, resulting in reduced blood flow to the lower body and legs.Conduct DisorderConduct disorder is a mental health condition in children in adolescents marked by serious aggressive and antisocial behaviors.Congenital Deformities of the Outer EarA congenital deformity of the outer ear is a visible malformation of the ear since birth.Congenital Hand ConditionsA congenital hand disorder (a difference in fingers or hands) can be treated with physical therapy, prosthetic devices, splints and/or corrective surgery.CroupA respiratory infection that mainly affects children and causes a barking cough, hoarseness, and breathing difficulties.Cystic Fibrosis in ChildrenCystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder affecting mucous movement in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems. Learn about symptoms and treatment.DDepression in Children and TeensChildhood depression is indicated by persistent feelings of sadness that interfere with the ability to function in daily life. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Developmental DelayDevelopmental delay occurs when a child’s progression through predictable developmental phases slows, stops, or reverses. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Diagnosing AutismAutism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that interferes with the ability to learn, communicate, and interact. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Diagnosing Pediatric SarcomasPediatric sarcomas are a rare type of childhood cancer that requires a team of specialized experts for treatment. Learn how this condition is diagnosed.Disruptive Mood Dysregulation DisorderA mental health condition in children and adolescents characterized by frequent temper tantrums or angry outbursts and chronic, severe irritability.EEpilepsy in Children and TeensEpilepsy is a recurrent seizure disorder that results from abnormal electric brain activity. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Eye Care for KidsEye examinations are important for detecting conditions early in childhood.GGrowth Plate InjuriesGrowth plate injuries are injuries to new bone tissue at the ends of a child's bones that can affect how they grow. Learn about symptoms and treatment.HHalo-Gravity TractionA method of gradually reducing the degree of curvature of the spines of people with severe spinal deformities.Helping Children Cope with DivorceThe breakup of parents doesn’t have to be catastrophic for children. While divorce is a loss, it can bring positive changes to a family when handled well.Hostile, Disobedient and Defiant Behavior in ChildrenOppositional defiance disorder is a disorder marked by frequent angry outbursts and aggressive behaviors that interfere with life. Learn about symptoms and treatment.HydrocephalusHydrocephalus is a condition that causes excess fluid to build up in and around the brain. Learn about symptoms and treatment.IInfantile HemangiomaInfantile hemangioma, a type of red birthmark formed of extra blood vessels in the skin, is common and found in five to 10 percent of babies.JJuvenile Idiopathic ArthritisJuvenile idiopathic arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory disease in children that causes swelling, pain, and stiffness in joints. Learn about symptoms and treatment.LLead Poisoning (in Children)Exposure to lead can harm young children and babies, even before birthLearning DisordersLearning disorders are conditions that affect the way a child processes information. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Leukemia in ChildrenLeukemia is a cancer that affects blood-forming tissues, weakening the body's ability to fight infection. Learn about symptoms and treatment.MMental Health Medications for ChildrenChildren may benefit from mental health medications, which may be helpful in treating autism, obsessive compulsive disorder or depression. Learn more about these treatments.Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)MIS-C is a rare but serious condition that can occur in children diagnosed with COVID-19. Learn about symptoms and treatment.OObsessive-Compulsive Disorder in ChildrenObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of repetitive thoughts or actions that feel out of control and disrupt daily living. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection)Also known as a middle ear infection, otitis media is a common condition characterized by inflammation of the middle ear due to infection.PParental Depression: How it Affects a ChildDepression is a mental health disorder that causes feelings of hopelessness, despair, and lack of motivation. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric AsthmaAsthma—a chronic inflammation of the airways that causes trouble breathing—affects 5 to 10 percent of children in the United States.Pediatric Brain and Spinal Cord TumorsAbnormal cells in the brain or spinal cord that have multiplied uncontrollably are known as brain or spinal cord tumors. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric CancerPediatric cancers although common are highly treatable. Radiation therapy can be used safely and effectively to treat a variety of cancers that affect children.Pediatric Cancer ImmunotherapyImmune therapy is a cancer treatment approach that uses the body’s own immune system to attack cancer cells. Learn more about this treatment.Pediatric Cancer SurgeryPediatric cancer surgery is a procedure to remove a cancerous tumor and the surrounding tissue in children. Learn about this procedure.Pediatric ChemotherapyMore than 80 percent of children diagnosed with cancer are cured, and chemotherapy is an effective treatment for childhood cancer.Pediatric Congenital Heart SurgeryPediatric congenital heart surgery is a procedure to correct a structural problem in a child's heart. Learn about this procedure.Pediatric ConstipationConstipation is characterized by either infrequent bowel movements or the passage of dry, hard stools.Pediatric Crohn's DiseasePediatric Crohn’s Disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can stunt growth in children. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Incontinence (Enuresis)Pediatric incontinence refers to daytime or nighttime loss of bladder control in children. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Kidney TransplantKidney transplant in children is a procedure that provides a donated kidney to a child with end-stage renal disease. Learn about this procedure.Pediatric Liver TransplantsPediatric liver transplant is a procedure that provides a donated liver to a child with a life-threatening liver disease.Pediatric Movement DisordersPediatric movement disorders are repeated and sometimes uncontrolled movements with psychological or physiological causes. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Neurogenic BladderPediatric neurogenic bladder is a condition in which nerve damage prevents communication between bladder muscles and the brain. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Obstructive Sleep ApneaPediatric obstructive sleep apnea is a sleeping disorder that causes a child to stop breathing momentarily. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Reflux DiseasePediatric gastroesophageal reflux is a condition of repeated regurgitation in babies that irritates the esophagus and causes pain. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Respiratory FailurePediatric acute respiratory failure is an emergency. It can be serious, even life-threatening, but most children recover without chronic illness.Pediatric SepsisSepsis is a severe inflammatory response in the body that can cause tissue damage and organ failure. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Pediatric Skull and Spine DeformitiesSome children are born with or develop irregularities of the skull and/or spine (called craniosynostosis). Some benefit from surgical correction procedures.Pediatric Sleep StudyA pediatric sleep study is an evaluation that analyzes a child's sleeping habits in the controlled setting of a sleep lab.Pediatric TonsillectomyA pediatric tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure that removes a child's tonsils. Learn about this procedure.Pediatric TonsillitisTonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils that causes them to swell, making it hard to swallow and leaving the lymph nodes in the neck sore.Pediatric Ulcerative ColitisUlcerative colitis causes swelling and sores in the colon, but with proper treatment, however, children can live happy, healthy lives.Pediatric UrologyPediatric urology is a branch of medicine addressing urinary-tract system and sexual development issues in children.Pivotal Response TreatmentPivotal response treatment is a behavioral treatment for autism that uses play to teach and reinforce new, pro-social behavior. Learn about this treatment.Premature BirthBabies born before the beginning of the 37th week of pregnancy are considered premature.Preventing Infections in the NICUInfections and antimicrobial resistance pose a profound threat in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) so special protective measures are emphasized.Psychological Assessment of ChildrenA psychological assessment of a child involves a series of interviews and tests to evaluate a child's strengths and weaknesses across many areas.RRSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)A highly contagious virus that causes respiratory tract inflammation with cold-like symptomsSShort Stature (Growth Disorders) in ChildrenShort statue is typically diagnosed when a child's height is two standard deviations from the mean for his or her age and gender. Learn about causes and treatment.Surgery for Cleft Lip and PalateCleft lip and cleft palate occur when tissues in the lips and/or the roof of the mouth fail to properly join during fetal development.TTruncus ArteriosusTruncus arteriosus is a rare congenital heart defect in which the heart's two main arteries don't form correctly during fetal development. It changes the way that blood moves through the heart and lungs and throughout the body.Twin-to-Twin Transfusion SyndromeTwin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare, in utero condition that occurs only in monochorionic twins (identical twins who share the same placenta).UUrinary Tract Infection (UTI) in ChildrenA urinary tract infection is a condition in which there is an Infection along the urinary tract. Learn about symptoms and treatment.VVaccines for KidsVaccines activate the immune system, training it to fight off certain viral and bacterial infections.