PediatricsThe field of medicine that deals with the care and treatment of infants and children.ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZSkip List ContentAAbdominal Migraine: Symptoms, Diagnosis & TreatmentA difficult-to-diagnose condition characterized by stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting.Anger, Irritability and Aggression in KidsAngry feelings often bubble into outbursts for children and teens. Parents may wonder whether their child's behavior is normal; Yale Medicine can help.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)ADHD can profoundly affect how well a child functions at home, at school and socially. A comprehensive approach goes beyond prescribing medication.Autism: The Transition to AdulthoodModern treatments can effectively prepare many teens and young adults with autism to function well in college and beyond.Avoiding and Refusing to Go to SchoolFor many reasons, including anxiety, depression, social issues and learning problems, an estimated 10-15% of kids are chronically absent from school.BBirth DefectsBirth defects are health problems that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe, and some babies have more than one.Blood Transfusions for ChildrenBlood transfusions for children are safe. However, it may help to know about possible complications.CCeliac Disease (in Children)Celiac disease is a digestive disorder in which the small intestine becomes inflamed and damaged by gluten, a protein found in many grains.Child DevelopmentNo two children develop in exactly the same way, but the phases of child development are, for a healthy child, logical and predictable.Clinical TrialsNew drugs and medical treatments need to go through a series tests called clinical trials. This is how new and better treatments are made possible.Congenital Deformities of the Outer EarCongenital deformities of the outer ear result in malformation of the visible ear and ear canal.Congenital Hand ConditionsA congenital hand disorder (a difference in fingers or hands) can be treated with physical therapy, prosthetic devices, splints and/or corrective surgery.Cystic Fibrosis in ChildrenCystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder, affects the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems. Newborns are screened for this condition.DDepression in Children and TeensChildhood depression affects about 5 percent of American children and adolescents. There are many effective treatment options for children and their families.Developmental DelayA child who doesn't develop at the same rate as others of the same age may have a developmental delay; the problem may be present at birth or arise later.Diabetes in ChildrenJuvenile (type 1) diabetes requires monitoring and treatment but, if managed well, doesn't interfere with a child's ability to enjoy a full life.Diagnosing AutismAutism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, interferes with a child's ability to communicate and interact with others, and also affects learning and behavior.Diagnosing Pediatric SarcomasPediatric sarcomas are a rare type of childhood cancer that requires a team of specialized experts for treatment.EEpilepsy in Children and TeensEpilepsy is characterized by two or more seizures separated by more than 24 hours. In children, it can be temporary or a lifelong condition.Eye Care for KidsPediatric ophthalmology helps children from newborns to teens optimize their eye health, treating conditions such as strabismus, amblyopia and myopia.FFevers in Infants Under 3 MonthsBecause infants are vulnerable to infection with their still-developing immune systems, fevers during the first months of life are taken seriously.GGrowth Plate InjuriesRecognizing a growth plate injury early and treating it appropriately is the best way to minimize damage to the growing bone.HHelping Children Cope with DivorceThe breakup of parents doesn’t have to be catastrophic for children. While divorce is a loss, it can bring positive changes to a family when handled well.Hostile, Disobedient and Defiant Behavior in ChildrenA child whose angry outbursts and aggressive behavior makes life difficult may have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); it affects 16 percent of teens.HydrocephalusHydrocephalus is a condition in which fluid that helps cushion the brain and the spinal cord accumulates inside the skull, causing neurological problems.IInfantile HemangiomaInfantile hemangioma, a type of red birthmark formed of extra blood vessels in the skin, is common and found in five to 10 percent of babies.JJuvenile Idiopathic ArthritisJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) is a common type of rheumatic disease that occurs during childhood.LLead Poisoning (in Children)Exposure to lead can harm young children and babies, even before birthLearning DisordersA learning disability can affect how a child learns to write, read and do math, as well as communication,social skills, attention, memory and coordination.Leukemia in ChildrenLeukemia (cancer of the bone marrow) affects children differently from adults; many types are more treatable in pediatric patients than adults.MMental Health Medications for ChildrenChildren may benefit from mental health medications, which may be helpful in treating autism, obsessive compulsive disorder or depression.Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)MIS-C is an inflammatory syndrome that affects children and appears to be associated with COVID-19.OObsessive-Compulsive Disorder in ChildrenA child or teen with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has intrusive, persistent thoughts and compulsions that make life hard at home and in school.PParental Depression: How it Affects a ChildOne in five children in the U.S. lives with a parent who has severe depression; research identifies this as a major risk factor for difficulties in a child’s life.Pediatric AsthmaAsthma—a chronic inflammation of the airways that causes trouble breathing—affects 5 to 10 percent of children in the United States.Pediatric Cancer ImmunotherapyImmune therapy uses the body’s own immune system to attack cancer cells. Pediatric cancer immunotherapy has become an important treatment for many childhood cancers.Pediatric Cancer SurgerySurvival rates for children with cancer have risen dramatically, a result of major advances in cancer treatments, including pediatric cancer surgery.Pediatric Cancer: An OverviewPediatric cancers although common are highly treatable. Radiation therapy can be used safely and effectively to treat a variety of cancers that affect children.Pediatric ChemotherapyMore than 80 percent of children diagnosed with cancer are cured, and chemotherapy is an effective treatment for childhood cancer.Pediatric Congenital Heart SurgeryYale Medicine surgeons are widely recognized for innovation and expertise in the surgical treatment of pediatric congenital heart defects.Pediatric ConstipationConstipation is characterized by either infrequent bowel movements or the passage of dry, hard stools.Pediatric Crohn's DiseaseCrohn’s disease is a lifelong condition that poses unique challenges for children, but with current medical therapies, children can lead healthy, productive lives.Pediatric Incontinence (Enuresis)Bedwetting and daytime incontinence can run in families or be a result of certain medical or psychological conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment is needed.Pediatric Kidney TransplantKidney failure in children can be caused by birth defects and genetic conditions; a kidney transplant can be safe and effective treatment.Pediatric Liver TransplantsPediatric liver transplants at Yale Medicine are extremely safe and successful, and can cure many cases of childhood liver failure.Pediatric Movement DisordersPediatric movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality and ease with which a child moves.Pediatric Neurogenic BladderChildren with medical conditions such as spina bifida, stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury may have neurogenic bladders and need specialized care.Pediatric Obstructive Sleep ApneaPediatric obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which the muscles at the back of the throat intermittently relax, partially or completely blocking the airway.Pediatric Reflux DiseasePediatric gastroesophageal reflux is common; it becomes a problem when the esophagus is irritated and causes pain or a burning sensation.Pediatric Respiratory FailurePediatric acute respiratory failure is an emergency. It can be serious, even life-threatening, but most children recover without chronic illness.Pediatric Sepsis: Symptoms, Diagnosis & TreatmentThe immune system’s response to an infection can sometimes spin out of control, leading to a life-threatening condition called sepsis. Babies, children, and adolescents can develop sepsis.Pediatric Skull and Spine DeformitiesSome children are born with or develop irregularities of the skull and/or spine (called craniosynostosis). Some benefit from surgical correction procedures.Pediatric Sleep StudyIf your child struggles with sleep, snores, is hyperactive or extremely drowsy during the day, he or she might need an overnight sleep study.Pediatric TonsillectomyIf your tonsils are enlarged or chronically infected, this can affect breathing and/or swallowing and may require removal (tonsillectomy).Pediatric TonsillitisTonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils that causes them to swell, making it hard to swallow and leaving the lymph nodes in the neck sore.Pediatric Ulcerative ColitisUlcerative colitis causes swelling and sores in the colon, but with proper treatment, however, children can live happy, healthy lives.Pediatric UrologyPediatric urology helps children by performing routine procedures like circumcisions and reconstructive surgeries for sexual development disorders.Pivotal Response TreatmentFor children with autism, anger and other challenges, pivotal response treatment (PRT) builds on principles of earlier behavior modification methods.Premature BirthBabies born before the beginning of the 37th week of pregnancy are considered premature.Preventing Infections in the NICUInfections and antimicrobial resistance pose a profound threat in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) so special protective measures are emphasized.Psychological Assessment of ChildrenPsychological assessments of children examine learning, social, behavioral and personality development to plan for =mental health and educational needs.SShort Stature (Growth Disorders) in ChildrenSome children who aren't growing as expected are diagnosed with short stature. Here's what parents need to know about this condition.Surgery for Cleft Lip and PalateCleft lip and cleft palate occur when tissues in the lips and/or the roof of the mouth fail to properly join during fetal development.TTreating Pediatric Brain and Spinal Cord TumorsMalignant pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors, including low-grade gliomas and medulloblastomas, are the second most common childhood cancer.Twin-to-Twin Transfusion SyndromeTwin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare, in utero condition that occurs only in monochorionic twins (identical twins who share the same placenta).UUrinary Tract Infection (UTI) in ChildrenA condition that causes the urinary tract (bladder, urethra, ureters, and/or kidneys) to become irritated and inflamed.