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Phase III

A Randomized Study of Daratumumab Plus Lenalidomide Versus Lenalidomide Alone as Maintenance Treatment in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Who Are Minimal Residual Disease Positive After Frontline Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

  • Study HIC#:2000025686
  • Last Updated:12/22/2022

The purpose of this study is to evaluate conversion rate to minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity following the addition of daratumumab to lenalidomide relative to lenalidomide alone, when administered as maintenance treatment to anti-cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) treatment naive participants with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are MRD positive as determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) following high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), with or without consolidation therapy.

  • Start Date02/28/2020
  • End Date10/31/2023

Trial Purpose and Description

Primary Outcome Measures  :

  1. Percentage of Participants with Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) Negative Status as determined by NGS [ Time Frame: Up to 12 months ]The percentage of participants with MRD negative status (at 10^[-5]), that is the MRD conversion rate from baseline to 12 months after maintenance treatment, will be determined by next generation sequencing (NGS).

Secondary Outcome Measures  :

  1. Progression-free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]PFS: duration from date of randomization to PD/death, whichever occurs first. IMWG criteria for PD: greater than or equal to (>=)25% from lowest response level in serum M-protein (absolute increase >=0.5 gram per deciliter [g/dL]); serum M-protein increase >=1 g/dL, if lowest M component >=5 g/dL; urine M-component: absolute increase >=200 mg/24 hour; only in participants without measurable serum and urine M-protein levels: increase of >=25% in difference between involved and uninvolved FLC levels (absolute increase >10 mg/dL); only in participants without measurable serum and urine M-protein levels and without measurable involved FLC levels, bone marrow PC%: absolute increase >=10%; appearance of new lesion(s), >=50% increase from nadir in sum of products of maximal perpendicular diameters of measured lesions (SPD) >1 lesion, or >=50% increase in longest diameter of previous lesion >1 centimeter (cm) in short axis; >=50% increase in circulating PCs if this is only measure of disease.
  2. Percentage of Participants with Overall Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) Negative Status [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]Percentage of participants with overall MRD negative status at any time after the date of randomization will be assessed.
  3. Durable MRD Negative Rate [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]Durable MRD negativity rate, defined as the percentage of participants who have achieved MRD negative status (at 10^-5) in 2 bone marrow aspirate examinations that are a minimum of 1 year apart, without any examination showing MRD positive status in between assessments.
  4. Percentage of Participants Achieving Complete Response (CR) or Stringent Complete Response (sCR) [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]Complete response is based on serum M-Protein assessments. International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria for CR: Negative immunofixation on the serum and urine, and disappearance of any soft tissue plasmacytomas, and less than (<) 5 percent (%) (plasma cells [PCs] in bone marrow aspirates. IMWG criteria for sCR: CR plus normal free light chain (FLC) ratio, and absence of clonal cells in bone marrow biopsy by immunohistochemistry.
  5. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: Up to 4.1 years ]OS is defined as the time from the date of randomization to date of death due to any cause. If participant is alive, participant's data will be censored at the last date participant was known to be alive.
  6. Duration of Complete Response (CR) [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]Duration of CR is the duration from the date of initial documentation of a CR or sCR to the date of first documented evidence of progressive disease (PD) as per IMWG criteria, or death due to PD, whichever occurs first.
  7. Change in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as Measured by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaires (QLQ)-C30 [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 3 years ]EORTC QLQ-C30 has been widely used among participants with multiple myeloma. It includes 30 items resulting in 5 functional scales (physical functioning, role functioning, emotional functioning, cognitive functioning, and social functioning), 1 Global Health Status scale, 3 symptom scales (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and pain), and 6 single items (dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, and financial difficulties). The recall period is 1 week ("past week item") and responses are reported using a verbal rating scale. The item and scale scores are transformed to a 0 to 100 scale. A higher score represents greater HRQoL, better functioning, and more (worse) symptoms.
  8. Change in HRQoL as Measured by European Quality of Life Five Dimensions Questionnaire-5-level (EQ-5D-5L) [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 3 years ]The EQ-5D-5L is a 5-item questionnaire that assesses 5 domains including mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression plus a visual analog scale rating "health today" with anchors ranging from 0 (worst imaginable health state) to 100 (best imaginable health state).
  9. Change in HRQoL as Measured by EORTC QLQ-Multiple Myeloma Module (MY20) [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 3 years ]The EORTC QLQ-MY20 has been designed to be used alongside the EORTC QLQ-C30 to address issues of more relevance to myeloma participants. The EORTC QLQ-MY20 20-items make up 4 scales: disease symptoms, side effects of treatment, future perspective, and body image. Item and scale scores are transformed to a 0 to 100 scale. A higher score represents greater HRQoL, better functioning, and more (worse) symptoms.
  10. Number of Participants with Treatment-emergent Adverse Events (TEAEs) as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: Up to 4.1 years ]An AE is any untoward medical occurrence in a participant participating in a clinical study that does not necessarily have a causal relationship with the pharmaceutical/biological agent under study. TEAEs are AEs with onset during the Treatment Phase or that are a consequence of a pre-existing condition that has worsened since baseline.

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Have newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with a history of 4 to 8 total cycles of induction with or without consolidation therapy and have received high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT): (a) for participants who have not received consolidation therapy, the participant must be within 180 days post-transplant at the time of randomization; and (b) for participants treated with consolidation therapy, the participant must be within 90 days of the last dose of consolidation therapy at the time of randomization
  • Must have a very good partial response (VGPR) or better response assessed per International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) 2016 criteria at the time of randomization
  • Have archived bone marrow samples collected before induction treatment (that is, at diagnosis) or before transplant (for example, at the end of induction) or have existing results on the index multiple myeloma clone based on Adaptive Biotechnologies' next generation sequencing (NGS)-based minimal residual disease (MRD) assay. Archived bone marrow samples will be used for calibration of myeloma clonal cells to facilitate assessment of primary end point by NGS. If an existing result on index myeloma clone is available from Adaptive Biotechnologies' NGS-based MRD assay, as part of institutional procedures, an archived bone marrow sample is not required as long as Adaptive Biotechnologies is able to retrieve historical results on the index myeloma clone form the clinical database. Any one of the following archived samples are required: (a) Greater than 1 milliliter (mL) viable frozen bone marrow aspirated aliquot (preferred) collected in an ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tube, frozen, and stored at a temperature of −80 centigrade (°C), or; (b) Non-decalcified diagnostic bone marrow aspirate clot sections (block or slides) for MRD assessment: (i) A formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) block of bone marrow aspirate clot, or 5 slides, 5 micrometer each, of non-decalcified bone marrow, or (ii) 5 slides, bone marrow aspirate smear
  • Must have residual disease as defined by detectable MRD (Adaptive Biotechnologies' NGS based MRD assay)
  • Must have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0, 1, or 2

Exclusion Criteria:

  • A history of malignancy (other than multiple myeloma) unless all treatment of that malignancy was completed at least 2 years before consent and the participant has no evidence of disease before the of date of randomization. Exceptions are squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, carcinoma in situ of the cervix or breast, or other non-invasive lesion that in the opinion of the investigator, with concurrence with the sponsor's medical monitor, is considered cured with minimal risk of recurrence within 3 years
  • Have had prior treatment/therapy with: (a) Daratumumab or any other anti-cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) therapies, (b) Focal radiation therapy within 14 days prior to randomization with the exception of palliative radiotherapy for symptomatic management but not on measurable extramedullary plasmacytoma. Radiotherapy within 14 days prior to randomization on measurable extramedullary plasmacytoma is not permitted even in the setting of palliation for symptomatic management, or (c) Plasmapheresis within 28 days of randomization
  • Be exhibiting clinical signs of meningeal or central nervous system involvement due to multiple myeloma
  • Have known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) less than (<) 50 percent (%) of predicted normal
  • Have known moderate or severe persistent asthma within the past 2 years or current uncontrolled asthma of any classification
  • Have any of the following: (a) Known history of seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (b) Seropositive for hepatitis B (defined by a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]. Participants with resolved infection (that is, participants who are HBsAg negative but positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen [anti-HBc] and/or antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]) must be screened using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurement of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels. Those who are PCR positive will be excluded. EXCEPTION: Participants with serologic findings suggestive of HBV vaccination (anti-HBs positivity as the only serologic marker) AND a known history of prior HBV vaccination, do not need to be tested for HBV DNA by PCR; (c) Seropositive for hepatitis C (anti-hepatitis C virus [HCV] antibody positive or HCV-RNA quantitation positive), except in the setting of a sustained virologic response, defined as aviremia at least 12 weeks after completion of antiviral therapy)


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